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生物防治进展

        本网介绍生物防治方面的各种进展,包括公开发表的论文和论著摘要,非公开发表的生防应用摘要,等等。要在此栏目介绍生物防治进展情况,需填写生防进展表并递交本网,经本网审核后发布。

2011年

7月

1. 省市县联合开展白僵菌防治杨树虫害试验
今年是宜昌市“创建森林城市”的关键性一年,宜昌市森防站紧紧围绕“创森”工作中心,认真做好森林病虫害的防治工作,积极尝试杨树病虫害防治新方法。近日,省林科院森防所、市森防站、当阳白僵菌厂、枝江市森防站在枝江市杨树主产区,联合开展利用白僵菌粉炮防治杨树虫害试验。
本文来源: http://www.hbsfzz.net.cn/newsinfo.jsp?id=201107151535360005&classid=null&typeid=0

2010年

3月

1. 百名学者联名建议撤销转基因水稻安全认证
两会召开前的3月1日,我国120多名专家学者联名签发了一份建议,邮寄给全国人大常委会,建议人大立即撤销转基因水稻的安全认证。其中有学者尖锐指出:转基因主粮是否推广,应该听取民众意见,不能任由少数专家和少数官员“悄悄”作决定。
本文来源: http://www.dzwww.com/xinwen/guoneixinwen/201003/t20100311_5432399.htm

2009年

11月

1.
Gontijo LM, Margolies DC, Nechols JR, Cloyd RA. Plant architecture, prey distribution and predator release strategy interact to affect foraging efficiency of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on cucumber. Biological Control (doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.11.007)
Abstract
We examined the ability of adult predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, to search for and consume twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on cucumber plants that were manipulated to exhibit different architectures and prey distributions among leaves. Plants were manipulated to have either six small leaves or two large leaves; however, both plants types had similar total surface areas. Prey were located either all on one basal leaf or evenly distributed among all leaves. In one experiment, we measured prey-finding time when predators were released at the top or bottom of plants. Regardless of release point, P. persimilis found prey more rapidly when prey were on all leaves. On such plants, P. persimilis found prey patches first on leaves closest to the release point. Predator release point only affected prey-finding time when prey were located on the basal leaf of 6-leafed plants; it was longer when predators were released at the top. In a second experiment, we measured consumption and oviposition rates of predatory mites. Phytoseiulus persimilis consumed more prey on six-leafed than two-leaved plants regardless of prey distribution. Prey consumption and predator oviposition was highest on prey patches nearest the release point. We conclude that releasing P. persimilis over the plant canopy may not be effective during early stages of spider mite infestations on plants with a complex architecture. Both prey distribution and plant architecture should be considered when making decisions concerning release of P. persimilis in augmentative biological control programs.
Copyright © 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.

本文来源: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/622791/description#description

2.
Ulyshen MD, Duan JJ, Bauer LS. Interactions between Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), larval parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Biological Control (doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.10.017 )
Abstract
Three hymenopteran parasitoids native to China are being released in the United States as biological control agents for the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an Asian buprestid species responsible for mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Two of these hymenopterans, Spathius agrili Yang (Braconidae), a larval ectoparasitoid, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid, prefer late-instar EAB larvae. This overlapping host preference raises concerns that interspecific competition following field releases may compromise establishment of one or both species. In a series of laboratory and field experiments, we found S. agrili and T. planipennisi exhibited similar parasitism rates when presented alone with EAB larvae for 12–14 days. However, S. agrili was more efficient at locating and parasitizing hosts within the first 27 h, possibly explaining why S. agrili excluded T. planipennisi in the laboratory trials and nearly excluded T. planipennisi in field trials when the two species were presented together with EAB larvae. We found that S. agrili parasitized larvae previously parasitized by T. planipennisi but not the reverse. However, S. agrili offspring failed to complete development on hosts that were previously parasitized by T. planipennisi. We recommend releasing these species separately in time or space to avoid the antagonistic interactions observed in this study.
Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

本文来源: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/622791/description#description

12月

1.
        国际著名学术出版商Springer于2009年出版了两部关于IPM的著作:
        (1) Integrated Pest Management: Innovation-Development Process (Vol.1) (Eds. R Peshin and AK Dhawan). Springer,Netherlands,2009,689 Pages (ISBN: 978-1-4020-8991-6; e-ISBN: 978-1-4020-8992-3)
        (2) Integrated Pest Management: Dissemination and Impact (Vol.2) (Eds. R Peshin and AK Dhawan). Springer,Netherlands,2009,627 Pages (ISBN: 978-1-4020-8989-3; e-ISBN: 978-1-4020-8990-9)
        该著作由来自美国,印度,荷兰,中国,德国,澳大利亚,意大利,俄罗斯,秘鲁,印度尼西亚,泰国,FAO,IRRI,CIP等国家和国际组织的近80位知名IPM专家撰写,包括国际著名生物多样性和IPM专家Pimental,Litsinger,Perkins等等。该著作内容包括全球IPM发展史,IPM理论、方法、技术,IPM在全世界各国的应用,转基因抗虫性,等等,是迄今为止最全面、最详尽的IPM综合性科学专著。该专著是植物保护科研和推广人员的必读文献,也适合作为研究生和高年级本科生的学习参考材料。

2.
CABI. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops (ISBN 9781845934095)
Abstract
The genetic modification of crops continues to be the subject of intense debate, and opinions are often strongly polarised. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops addresses the major concerns of scientists, policy makers, environmental lobby groups and the general public regarding this controversial issue, from an editorially neutral standpoint. While the main focus is on environmental impact, food safety issues, for both humans and animals are also considered. The book concludes with a discussion on the future of agricultural biotechnology in the context of sustainability, natural resource management and future global population and food supply.

3.
        近日,中国农业部官方网站上公布的消息显示,该部下属的生物安全委员会向两个转基因水稻和一个转基因玉米品种发放了安全证书。农业部官方网站上公布的已批准的转基因水稻品种之一是转Bt基因水稻。
        述评: 转抗虫基因作物与转品质基因作物不同,基于某些转Bt基因作物的前车之鉴和转抗虫基因作物的理论分析(长期而言,导致非靶标害虫转为主要害虫,非靶标害虫抗性增强,不能减少农药使用,无法保证提高产量,也存在生态环境风险),对转Bt基因水稻的应用效益和前景,绝不能盲目乐观。-中国生物防治网


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